Carthage had paid off its indemnity and was prospering economically, but was no military threat to Rome. At the beginning of the First Punic War, Rome only possessed a modest navy. These wars involved the Romans and Carthaginians. Scipio was not able to prevent Hasdrubal from leading his depleted army over the western passes of the Pyrenees into Gaul. That night the Carthaginian garrison escaped and the Romans seized the city and its inhabitants, selling 25,000 of them into slavery.  On occasion some of the infantry would wear captured Roman armour, especially among Hannibal's troops. , In 210 BC Publius Cornelius Scipio,[note 10] arrived in Iberia with further Roman reinforcements. In 254 they captured the important fortress of Panormus (Palermo), but when Carthage threw reinforcements into the island the war again came to a standstill. The First and Second Punic Wars accustomed the Romans to massive long-term commitment of men and resources to overseas campaigns. , In 205 BC, Mago landed in Genua in north-west Italy with the remnants of his Spanish army (see Â§ Iberia below).  The Roman Senate authorised the raising of a force of 86,000 men, the largest in Roman history to that point. Whenever Carthage petitioned Rome for redress, or permission to take military action, Rome backed its ally, Masinissa, and refused.  In the spring of 212 BC the Romans stormed Syracuse in a surprise night assault and captured several districts of the city. This victory, by giving the Romans undisputed command of the sea, rendered certain the ultimate fall of the Punic strongholds in Sicily. This conflict was fought entirely on Carthage's territories in what is now Tunisia and largely centred around the Siege of Carthage. The Punic Wars were made of three major wars. First Punic War (264–241 BC) The seeds of the First Punic War had been sown in the 280s BC when a small band of unemployed Italian mercenaries, known as the Mamertines or the "Sons of Mars," occupied the strategic town of Messana in northwest Sicily. , After this the land war on Sicily reached a stalemate as the Carthaginians focused on defending their well-fortified towns and cities; these were mostly on the coast and so could be supplied and reinforced without the Romans being able to use their superior army to interfere. , The Mercenary, or Truceless, War began in 241 BC as a dispute over the payment of wages owed to 20,000 foreign soldiers who had fought for Carthage on Sicily during the First Punic War. At Mylae (Milazzo), off the north Sicilian coast, their admiral Gaius Duilius defeated a Carthaginian squadron of superior maneuvering capacity by grappling and boarding.  The Carthaginians were defeated, but Hasdrubal was able to withdraw the majority of his army in good order.  By early 215 BC they were fielding at least 12 legions; by 214 BC, 18; and by 213 BC, 22. Punic Wars, also called Carthaginian Wars, (264–146 bce), a series of three wars between the Roman Republic and the Carthaginian (Punic) empire, resulting in the destruction of Carthage, the enslavement of its population, and Roman hegemony over the western Mediterranean. [note 2] Other sources include coins, inscriptions, archaeological evidence and empirical evidence from reconstructions such as the trireme Olympias.  In 260 BC Romans set out to construct a fleet and used a shipwrecked Carthaginian quinquereme as a blueprint for their own. Punic wars lasted for an ammount of 42 years and they involved every city in western Mediterranean, wonderfull metropolis like syracusae and taranteum were sacked and destroyed, in the second punic war italian cities were highly involved in the war, they had to choose between Hannibal and rome, romans never forget its allies and the enemies even more, they not only have send reinforcement but even … Situated on the narrow straight the separates Sicily from Italy, Messana controlled commerce and communications between Sicily and the mainland.  Away from the coasts its hilly and rugged terrain made manoeuvring large forces difficult and favoured the defence over the offence. Although after 201 the Republic gready reduced the number of men under arms, this was never to fall back to the level normal before 265. Wars of the Fall of the Western Roman Empire, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Punic_Wars&oldid=992279103, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia pages semi-protected against vandalism, Srpskohrvatski / ÑÑÐ¿ÑÐºÐ¾Ñ ÑÐ²Ð°ÑÑÐºÐ¸, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Roman victory, destruction of Carthage and incorporation of the Carthaginian Empire into the Roman Empire, This page was last edited on 4 December 2020, at 13:09. The first two wars were long—23 years and 17 years, separated by an interval of 23 … The previously Carthaginian territories were taken over as the Roman province of Africa. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. The Romans' lodgement between the Ebro and Pyrenees blocked the route from Iberia to Italy and prevented the despatch of reinforcements from Iberia to Hannibal. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Roman expansion in Italy from 298 to 201 BCE. A fresh Roman army attacked the main Carthaginian stronghold on the island, Agrigentum, in 210 BC and the city was betrayed to the Romans by a discontented Carthaginian officer. The Second Punic War began in 218 BC and witnessed Hannibal's crossing of the Alps and invasion of mainland Italy.  The next morning the Romans systematically worked their way through the residential part of the city, killing everyone they encountered and firing the buildings behind them.  The Romans built a navy to challenge Carthage's, and using the corvus inflicted a major defeat at the Battle of Mylae in 260 BC. The temper of the Roman people was soon made manifest during a conflict which broke out between the Carthaginians and their discontented mercenaries. 2 218-201 bc. Publius Scipio was the bereaved son of the previous Roman co-commander in Iberia, also named Publius Scipio, and the nephew of the other co-commander, Gnaeus Scipio. , With the suppression of the rebellion, Hamilcar understood that Carthage needed to strengthen its economic and military base if it were to again confront Rome. , Taking advantage of their naval victories the Romans launched an invasion of North Africa in 256 BC, which the Carthaginians intercepted at the Battle of Cape Ecnomus off the south coast of Sicily. The Punic Wars were a series of conflicts fought by the powerful cities of Carthage and Rome between 264 BC and 146 BC.  Carthage's new allies felt little sense of community with Carthage, or even with each other.  The siege was marked by the ingenuity of Archimedes in inventing war machines to counteract the traditional siege warfare methods of the Romans. , At the elections of 216 BC Gaius Terentius Varro and Lucius Aemilius Paullus were elected as consuls; both were more aggressive-minded than Fabius. The impact of the Punic Wars on Roman plebeians was mostly negative.  Masinissa's seizures of and raids into Carthaginian territory became increasingly flagrant. This could be increased to 5,000 in some circumstances, These elephants were typically about 2.5-metre-high (8 ft) at the shoulder, and should not be confused with the larger. The attendant new obligation to safeguard the peninsula against foreign interference made it necessary not to allow the neighbouring island of Sicily to fall into the hands of a strong and expansive power. •43 years of war over a span of 118 years.  All except the smallest towns were too well fortified for Hannibal to take by assault, and blockade could be a long-drawn-out affair, or if the target was a port, impossible. In 263 the Romans advanced with a considerable force into Hieron’s territory and induced him to seek peace and alliance with them.  During this period of Roman expansion Carthage, with its capital in what is now Tunisia, had come to dominate southern Spain, much of the coastal regions of North Africa, the Balearic Islands, Corsica, Sardinia, and the western half of Sicily. A treaty was agreed in 201 BC which stripped Carthage of its overseas territories, and some of their African ones; imposed a large indemnity, to be paid over 50 years; severely restricted the size of its armed forces; and prohibited Carthage from waging war without Rome's express permission. To the remonstrances of Carthage the Romans replied with a direct declaration of war, and only withheld their attack upon the formal cession of Sardinia and Corsica and the payment of a further indemnity. The fighting took place primarily on the Mediterranean island of Sicily and its surrounding waters, and also in North Africa, Corsica and Sardinia.  Hannibal then cut off the Roman army from Rome, which provoked Flaminius into a hasty pursuit without proper reconnaissance. Because Numi… The Punic Wars and Expansion In the 3rd and 2nd Centuries BC, Rome, after consolidating its hold on the Italian peninsula would soon come up against the power of the Mediterranean, Carthage. [ 114 ] this new fleet effectively blockaded the Carthaginian empire known as the Roman Senate a phalanx Masinissa as. 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