Identifying the bacteria that cause gum disease relies on X-ray checks, the probing of pockets in the gums and bacteria cultivation, costly and time-intensive procedures that are not available at small dental clinics, it said. At a news conference in Taipei, NCKU and Taiwan-Advance signed an NT$8 million (US$280,495) technology transfer agreement, authorizing the company to sell the kits. A. Tan, S. W. Choo, and N. S. Jakubovics, “Transcriptional responses of, T. Wu, L. Cen, C. Kaplan et al., “Cellular components mediating coadherence of, D. J. Bradshaw, P. D. Marsh, G. K. Watson, and C. Allison, “Role of, P. E. Kolenbrander and J. London, “Adhere today, here tomorrow: oral bacterial adherence,”, P. E. Kolenbrander, R. J. Palmer, A. H. Rickard, N. S. Jakubovics, N. I. Chalmers, and P. I. Diaz, “Bacterial interactions and successions during plaque development,”, N. Takahashl, K. Saito, C. F. Schachtele, and T. Yamada, “Acid tolerance and acid-neutralizing activity of, W. H. Bowen, R. A. Burne, H. Wu, and H. Koo, “Oral biofilms: pathogens, matrix, and polymicrobial interactions in microenvironments,”, M. Benakanakere and D. F. Kinane, “Innate cellular responses to the periodontal biofilm,”, D. Graves, “Cytokines that promote periodontal tissue destruction,”, R. Vernal, N. Dutzan, M. Hernández et al., “High expression levels of receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand associated with human chronic periodontitis are mainly secreted by CD4, A. M. F. Aranha, C. E. Repeke, T. P. Garlet et al., “Evidence supporting a protective role for th9 and th22 cytokines in human and experimental periapical lesions,”, E. Gemmell and G. J. Seymour, “Immunoregulatory control of Th1/Th2 cytokine profiles in periodontal disease,”, M. K. Noh, M. Jung, S. H. Kim et al., “Assessment of IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-, H. Davanian, H. Stranneheim, T. Båge et al., “Gene expression profiles in paired gingival biopsies from periodontitis-affected and healthy tissues revealed by massively parallel sequencing,”, K. S. B. Lomba, T. F. C. de Souza Breves Beiler, M. R. C. Sete, F. R. Pires, and C. M. da Silva Figueredo, “Use of minimally invasive gingival biopsies in the study of inflammatory mediators expression and their correlation with gingival fluid in patients with chronic periodontitis,”, E. R. Herrero, S. Fernandes, T. Verspecht et al., “Dysbiotic biofilms deregulate the periodontal inflammatory response,”, G. Ramage, D. F. Lappin, E. Millhouse et al., “The epithelial cell response to health and disease associated oral biofilm models,”, V. Bakthavatchalu, A. Meka, J. J. Mans et al., “Polymicrobial periodontal pathogen transcriptomes in calvarial bone and soft tissue,”, A. Beklen, T. Sorsa, and Y. T. Konttinen, “Toll-like receptors 2 and 5 in human gingival epithelial cells co-operate with T-cell cytokine interleukin-17,”, J. E. Shin, Y. S. Kim, J. E. Oh, B. M. Min, and Y. Choi, “, S. I. Tanabe, C. Bodet, and D. Grenier, “, M. Miyamoto, K. Ishihara, and K. Okuda, “The, S. S. Chukkapalli, M. F. Rivera-Kweh, I. M. Velsko et al., “Chronic oral infection with major periodontal bacteria, S. W. Lee, M. Sabet, H. S. Um, J. Yang, H. C. Kim, and W. Zhu, “Identification and characterization of the genes encoding a unique surface (S-) layer of, R. P. Settem, K. Honma, T. Nakajima et al., “A bacterial glycan core linked to surface (S)-layer proteins modulates host immunity through Th17 suppression,”, C. E. Moffatt, S. E. Whitmore, A. L. Griffen, E. J. Leys, and R. J. Lamont, “, T. Shouda, T. Yoshida, T. Hanada et al., “Induction of the cytokine signal regulator SOCS3/CIS3 as a therapeutic strategy for treating inflammatory arthritis,”, S. F. Ahmad, M. A. Ansari, K. M. A. Zoheir et al., “Regulation of TNF-, D. Jiang, D. Li, L. Cao et al., “Positive feedback regulation of proliferation in vascular smooth muscle cells stimulated by lipopolysaccharide is mediated through the TLR 4/Rac1/Akt pathway,”, W. Lieberthal and J. S. Levine, “The role of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in renal disease,”, E. Kozarov, “Bacterial invasion of vascular cell types: vascular infectology and atherogenesis,”, C. H. Choi, R. Spooner, J. DeGuzman, T. Koutouzis, D. M. Ojcius, and Ö. Yilmaz, “, E. Park, H. S. Na, Y. R. Song, S. Y. Shin, Y. M. Kim, and J. Chung, “Activation of NLRP3 and AIM2 inflammasomes by, C. Soto, I. Bugueño, A. Hoare et al., “The, D. R. Dixon and R. P. Darveau, “Lipopolysaccharide heterogeneity: innate host responses to bacterial modification of lipid A structure,”, T. D. K. Herath, R. P. Darveau, C. J. Seneviratne, C. Y. Wang, Y. Wang, and L. Jin, “Tetra- and penta-acylated lipid A structures of, S. Sugawara, E. Nemoto, H. Tada, K. Miyake, T. Imamura, and H. Takada, “Proteolysis of human monocyte CD14 by cysteine proteinases (gingipains) from, H. Tada, S. Sugawara, E. Nemoto et al., “Proteolysis of ICAM-1 on human oral epithelial cells by gingipains,”, A. Banbula, M. Bugno, A. Kuster, P. C. Heinrich, J. Travis, and J. Potempa, “Rapid and efficient inactivation of IL-6 gingipains, lysine- and arginine-specific proteinases from, J. Mikolajczyk-Pawlinska, J. Travis, and J. Potempa, “Modulation of interleukin-8 activity by gingipains from, P. L. W. Yun, A. Changes in subgingival microbiota have long been associated with chronic periodontitis. It's usually the result of poor oral hygiene. In this model, F. nucleatum generates a proinflammatory microenvironment associated with an NF-κB-mediated response (COX-2, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and TNF-α) , which provides a critical link between inflammation and cancer  and is implicated in potentiating colorectal tumorigenesis in mice [167, 169]. As mentioned above, systemic spread of periodontitis-associated bacteria is usually polymicrobial. However, different studies that sought to determine the composition of the bacterial community associated with periodontitis managed to determine that these bacteria were not only present in patients with periodontitis but also in periodontally healthy individuals .  proposed that A. actinomycetemcomitans, P. gingivalis, T. forsythia, T. denticola, and F. nucleatum are related to higher risk of atherosclerosis.  reviewed these studies concluding that different subgingival microbiomes are characteristic of healthy individuals, as well as patients with gingivitis and periodontitis. A. Roberts et al., “, U. Andersson and K. J. Tracey, “HMGB1 is a therapeutic target for sterile inflammation and infection,”, M. Lamkanfi, A. Sarkar, L. Vande Walle et al., “Inflammasome-dependent release of the alarmin HMGB1 in endotoxemia,”, B. S. Franklin, L. Bossaller, D. de Nardo et al., “The adaptor ASC has extracellular and ‘prionoid’ activities that propagate inflammation,”, D. Polak, A. Wilensky, L. Shapira et al., “Mouse model of experimental periodontitis induced by, S. H. Ahn, J. E. Song, S. Kim et al., “NOX1/2 activation in human gingival fibroblasts by, Y. Li, H. Guo, X. Wang, Y. Lu, C. Yang, and P. Yang, “Coinfection with, S. J. Janket, A. E. Baird, S. K. Chuang, and J. In the proinflammatory context, the cytokines that increased the most were IL-1, IL-6, and TNF-α, which are precisely those related to chronic inflammation and chronic bone damage . oral bacteria can spread easily into the bloodstream; oral bacteria can attach to fatty plaques in the coronary arteries, contributing to clot formation and heart attacks; a person with periodontal disease is more than three times mores susceptible to coronary heart disease and stroke Remarks containing abusive and obscene language, personal attacks of any kind or promotion will be removed and the user banned. C. C. Calkins, K. Platt, J. Potempa, and J. Travis, “Inactivation of tumor necrosis factor-alpha by proteinases (gingipains) from the periodontal pathogen, S. Krisanaprakornkit, J. R. Kimball, A. Weinberg, R. P. Darveau, B. W. Bainbridge, and B. Fan, A. V. Alekseyenko, J. Wu et al., “Human oral microbiome and prospective risk for pancreatic cancer: a population-based nested case-control study,”, D. Listyarifah, M. T. Nieminen, L. K. Mäkinen et al., “, M. Narikiyo, C. Tanabe, Y. Yamada et al., “Frequent and preferential infection of, K. Arimatsu, H. Yamada, H. Miyazawa et al., “Oral pathobiont induces systemic inflammation and metabolic changes associated with alteration of gut microbiota,”, S. Mao, Y. Although the inflammatory processes occur locally in the oral cavity, several studies have determined that the chronic inflammation during periodontal diseases or the dissemination of bacterial components could cause various extraoral diseases. Periodontal diseases are associated with chronic inflammation, which affects the supporting tissues of the teeth including the gums or gingival tissue, as well as the periodontal ligament and the alveolar bone in more severe forms of the diseases . A. DiDonato, F. Mercurio, and M. Karin, “NF-, C. T. Ma, H. S. Luo, F. Gao, Q. C. Tang, and W. Chen, “, M. T. Nieminen, D. Listyarifah, J. Hagström et al., “, K. Jakubowska, A. Pryczynicz, J. Januszewska et al., “Expressions of matrix metalloproteinases 2, 7, and 9 in carcinogenesis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma,”, A. Binder Gallimidi, S. Fischman, B. Revach et al., “Periodontal pathogens. The changes in WBC count in periodontitis were analysed. We aimed to investigate the performance and reliability of machine learning models in predicting the severity of chronic periodontitis. FimA attenuates the host p53-mediated tumor suppression and cell cycle progression in oral epithelial cells [6, 67] and controls the epithelial–mesenchymal transition . A. S. Roberts, K. R. Atanasova, N. Chowdhury, K. Han, and Ö. Yilmaz, “Human primary epithelial cells acquire an epithelial-mesenchymal-transition phenotype during long-term infection by the oral opportunistic pathogen, O. Yilmaz, L. Yao, K. Maeda et al., “ATP scavenging by the intracellular pathogen, Ã. Yilmaz, A. The body of a 57-year-old man surnamed Chien (簡) was found in the driver’s seat when police arrived at the scene after receiving a report at about 8am. Eke, B. However, although increasing evidence links periodontitis and carcinogenesis, the fact that periodontitis is a polymicrobial disease has not been well addressed in the context of cancer. Oral bacteria are highly associated with oral diseases, and periodontitis is a strongly prevalent disease, presenting a substantial economical burden. The question of how these species interact with each other in carcinogenesis has not been fully understood. Some of these diseases and a brief description of their associations with periodontal disease are summarized as follows: This was a key point in supporting current theories establishing that it is not the colonization of specific bacteria what triggers the disease, but rather the changes in the relative abundances of specific taxa in the subgingival communities due to dysbiotic processes occurring in subgingival areas that would determine the development of periodontitis. This is interesting, since in addition to P. gingivalis, other periodontitis-associated taxa have been associated with orodigestive cancers. It was also described that T cells contribute to cell-mediated immune responses by stimulating T helper cells such as Th1, Th2, Th9, Th17, and Th22 and the deregulation of this response could be related to the appearance of the disease and its chronicity [43, 44]. FadA induces inflammation and activation of procarcinogenic pathways directly in colorectal cells, activating E-cadherin-β-catenin signaling . These bacteremias are usually polymicrobial, with higher numbers of Gram-negative bacilli and species of the genera Peptostreptococcus, Clostridium, Fusobacterium, among others . Huang, H. B. Zhang, H. N. Dang, and S. K. Haake, “Differential regulation of cytokine genes in gingival epithelial cells challenged by, F. Q. Bui, L. Johnson, J. On the other hand, B cells produce antibodies against the microorganisms present in the subgingival pocket in order to eliminate them and decrease the local inflammation . Keep comments relevant to the article. A population-based case-control study in southern Sweden,”, T. Zheng, P. Boyle, H. Hu et al., “Dentition, oral hygiene, and risk of oral cancer: a case-control study in Beijing, People’s Republic of China,”, D. Lee, K. U. Jung, H. O. Kim, H. Kim, and H. K. Chun, “Association between oral health and colorectal adenoma in a screening population,”, R. C. de Moraes, F. L. Dias, C. M. da Silva Figueredo, and R. G. Fischer, “Association between chronic periodontitis and oral/oropharyngeal cancer,”, S. D. Chung, M. C. Tsai, C. C. Huang, L. T. Kao, and C. H. Chen, “A population-based study on the associations between chronic periodontitis and the risk of cancer,”, P. Maisonneuve, S. Amar, and A. Thus, the whole dysbiotic community will synergistically initiate processes of tissue inflammation, activate production of cytokines, and initiate the recruitment of immune cells . Periodontitis has been associated with orodigestive cancers through the chronic inflammation generated in the oral cavity and the concomitant mobilization of inflammatory mediators to distal sites in the human body, as well as a direct carcinogenic effect mediated by periodontitis-associated bacterial species either directly in oral cells or by migrating from the oral cavity. On the other hand, ASC functions as an adapter of the NLRP3 inflammasome assembly and is secreted by macrophages during inflammation . Additionally, the direct effect of periodontitis-associated bacteria as well as other subgingival microorganisms equally prevalent both in healthy and diseased subjects “core species” contributes to the chronicity of the disease through the activation of specific inflammatory pathways. In the United States, the prevalence of gingivitis in children aged between 3 and 11 years is 9-17%, while at puberty, prevalence rises to 70-90%  and corresponds to 47% of adult population . IL-1 and TNF-α are highly related with the pathogenesis of RA, but other cytokines like IL-4 and IL-17 have also a role in this disease. This is important, since these cytokines are related to the stimulation of osteoclasts and bone resorption . Unlike traditional test methods, the rapid test kit would not cause pain during the testing process, NCKU Hospital resident physician in dental medicine Ting Chun-chan said, adding that the testing process can be completed in six minutes at a clinic. This theory adds the fact that every component of a symbiotic and synergistic microbiota is relevant in the onset of the disease and not only the periodontitis-associated bacteria. A Taiwanese-developed test can cut the time to identify bacteria that cause gum disease from two weeks to six minutes, researchers said on Friday. Proinflammatory pathways were also summarized. Moreover, comorbidity between F. nucleatum bacteremia and several types of cancer has been found in hospitalized patients [124–126]. Additionally, the direct effect of periodontitis-associated bacteria as well as other subgingival microorganisms equally prevalent both in healthy and diseased subjects “core species” contributes to t… Moreover, an increase in CD4+ T lymphocytes was shown . Ship, P. I. Interestingly, not only local effects in the oral cavity have been associated with such disorders but also periodontitis has been largely considered as a risk factor for a number of both oral and systemic diseases [2–5]. Nucleoside diphosphate kinase ( NDK ) enzyme that removes ATP through the TLRs mediated the... Patients [ 124–126 ] allowed chronic periodontitis bacteria form on the teeth in WBC count in patients with chronic periodontitis the. [ 14 ] ) enzyme that removes ATP through the P2X7 receptor a higher expression of TLR4 [ ]! Discretion of the host cell for its survival and persistence damage occurs by... 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