In this tutorial we are going to use the Linear Models from Sklearn library. In python, normalization is very easy to do. After running the above code let’s take a look at the data by typing `my_data.head()` we will get something like the following: It is clear that the scale of each variable is very different from each other. The data set and code files are present here. We’re living in the era of large amounts of data, powerful computers, and artificial intelligence.This is just the beginning. 2. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Multivariate linear regression algorithm from scratch. In this tutorial, you will discover how to implement the simple linear regression algorithm from scratch in Python. I will leave that to you. Multiple or multivariate linear regression is a case of linear regression with two or more independent variables. Mathematically a linear relations Take a good look at ` X @ theta.T `. Due to the feature calculation, the SPY_data contains some NaN values that correspond to the first’s rows of the exponential and moving average columns. ZooZoo gonna buy new house, so we have to find how much it will cost a particular house.+ Read More Data Preprocessing; 3. There is one independent variable x that is used to predict the variable y. Linear regression is one of the fundamental algorithms in machine learning, and it’s based on simple mathematics. In this section we will see how the Python Scikit-Learn library for machine learning can be used to implement regression functions. The Pandas module allows us to read csv files and return a DataFrame object. Can you figure out why? In the following example, we will use multiple linear regression to predict the stock index price (i.e., the dependent variable) of a fictitious economy by using 2 independent/input variables: 1. Steps to Steps guide and code explanation. The program also does Backward Elimination to determine the best independent variables to fit into the regressor object of the LinearRegression class. As you can see, `size` and `bedroom` variable now have different but comparable scales. We are going to see the example of Univariate Linear Regression in Python. Recommended way is to split the dataset and use 80% for training and 20% for testing the model. The color variable has a natural ordering from medium light, medium, medium dark and dark. (c = 'r' means that the color of the line will be red.) import pandas. High Quality tutorials for finance, risk, data science. To visualise how the predict function works we need to revisit the multivariate linear regression equation. In this machine learning tutorial with python, we will write python code to predict home prices using multivariate linear regression in python (using sklearn. Multiple Linear Regression attempts to model the relationship between two or more features and a response by fitting a linear equation to observed data. Multivariate-Linear-Regression-from-scratch-in-python. Clearly, it is nothing but an extension of Simple linear regression. In the following example, … Plotting the points (observations) 2. Import Libraries and Import Dataset. Ordinary least squares Linear Regression. let me show what type of examples we gonna solve today. We will generate the following features of the model: Before training the dataset, we will make some plots to observe the correlations between the features and the target variable. We are trying to predict the Adj Close value of the Standard and Poor’s index. So let’s jump into writing some python code. Importing the dataset; 2. You'll want to get familiar with linear regression because you'll need to use it if you're trying to measure the relationship between two or more continuous values.A deep dive into the theory and implementation of linear regression will help you understand this valuable machine learning algorithm. The example contains the following steps: Step 1: Import libraries and load the data into the environment. The goal is to minimize the sum of the squared errros to fit a straight line to a set of data points. The main purpose of this article is to apply multiple linear regression using Python. The lines of code below fits the multivariate linear regression model and prints the result summary. Viewed 8k times 4. Algebra to do it and offer a good walk-through in R; I think they will be very helpful to get one started. We are also going to use the same test data used in Multivariate Linear Regression From Scratch With Python tutorial. In this blog post, I want to focus on the concept of linear regression and mainly on the implementation of it in Python. I recommend using spyder with its fantastic variable viewer. Linear Regression with Python Scikit Learn. Running `my_data.head()`now gives the following output. If you have not done it yet, now would be a good time to check out Andrew Ng’s course. If you have any questions feel free to comment below or hit me up on Twitter or Facebook. So, there you go. We will start with simple linear regression involving two variables and then we will move towards linear regression involving multiple variables. The dimension of the graph increases as your features increases. Linear regression is one of the most commonly used algorithms in machine learning. Nearly all real-world regression models involve multiple predictors, and basic descriptions of linear regression are often phrased in terms of the multiple regression model. The computeCost function takes X,y and theta as parameters and computes the cost. What exactly is happening here? Your email address will not be published. The code for Cost function and Gradient Descent are almost exactly same in both articles! Economics: Linear regression is the predominant empirical tool in economics. So what does this tells us? Application of Multiple Linear Regression using Python. In this exercise, we will see how to implement a linear regression with multiple inputs using Numpy. Multivariate polynomial regression with Python. Simple Linear Regression. In this blog, we have seen the implementation of simple Linear regression using python with NumPy broadcasting. In this step, we will fit the model with the LinearRegression classifier. Complete Python Code for Implementing Linear Regression; Conclusion; 6 Steps to build a Linear Regression model. Ordinary least squares Linear Regression. All the above-mentioned are the examples of Multivariate Linear Regression as the independent variable is considered to be dependant on more the one variable. In chapter 2 you have fitted a logistic regression with width as explanatory variable. Can Big Traditional Companies Ever Be Truly Innovative. Linear Regression with Multiple Variables. Step 4: Create the train and test dataset and fit the model using the linear regression algorithm. There is one independent variable x that is used to predict the variable y. Linear regression is a prediction method that is more than 200 years old. Therefore, in this tutorial of linear regression using python, we will see the model representation of the linear regression problem followed by a representation of the hypothesis. Linear Regression in Python - A Step-by-Step Guide In the last lesson of this course, you learned about the history and theory behind a linear regression machine learning algorithm. Let’s now set the Date as index and reverse the order of the dataframe in order to have oldest values at top. Link- Linear Regression-Car download. In the last post (see here) we saw how to do a linear regression on Python using barely no library but native functions (except for visualization). We have a value of response y (the price of house) for every feature x (area of the house). To implement the simple linear regression we need to know the below formulas. See if you can minimize it further. Quick Revision to Simple Linear Regression and Multiple Linear Regression. CFA Institute does not endorse, promote or warrant the accuracy or quality of Finance Train. Step 2: Generate the features of the model that are related with some measure of volatility, price and volume. Which is to say we tone down the dominating variable and level the playing field a bit. Please give me the logic behind that. Now let’s build the simple linear regression in python without using any machine libraries. The file is meant for testing purposes only, you can download it here: cars.csv. This lesson is part 16 of 22 in the course. Implementing all the concepts and matrix equations in Python from scratch is really fun and exciting. That means, some of the variables make greater impact to the dependent variable Y, while some of the variables are not statistically important at all. If you now run the gradient descent and the cost function you will get: It worked! Go on, play around with the hyperparameters. The correlation matrix between the features and the target variable has the following values: Either the scatterplot or the correlation matrix reflects that the Exponential Moving Average for 5 periods is very highly correlated with the Adj Close variable. In the previous post we see different action on given data sets , so in this post we see Explore of the data and plots: The algorithm involves finding a set of simple linear functions that in aggregate result in the best predictive performance. I recommend… sklearn.linear_model.LinearRegression¶ class sklearn.linear_model.LinearRegression (*, fit_intercept=True, normalize=False, copy_X=True, n_jobs=None) [source] ¶. Like simple linear regression here also the required libraries have to be called first. If we run regression algorithm on it now, `size variable` will end up dominating the `bedroom variable`. A simple python program that implements a very basic Multiple Linear Regression model. The steps to perform multiple linear Regression are almost similar to that of simple linear Regression. Multivariate Linear Regression. Multiple linear regression attempts to model the relationship between two or more features and a response by fitting a linear equation to observed data. Example of Multivariate Regression on Python. Multivariate linear regression algorithm from scratch. Multivariate Linear Regression From Scratch With Python. In Python we have modules that will do the work for us. Simple linear regression is used to predict finite values of a series of numerical data. We assign the third column to y. In this exercise, we will see how to implement a linear regression with multiple inputs using Numpy. Predicting the test set results; Visualizing the results. Quick Revision to Simple Linear Regression and Multiple Linear Regression. In this tutorial, We are going to understand Multiple Regression which is used as a predictive analysis tool in Machine Learning and see the example in Python. It will create a 3D scatter plot of dataset with its predictions. Define a Linear Regression Model. Required fields are marked *. Im wondering, is it possible to make multivariate polynomial regression? Whenever there is a change in X, such change must translate to a change in Y.. Providing a Linear Regression Example. (You can find further information at Wikipedia). Linear regression works on the principle of formula of a straight line, mathematically denoted as y = mx + c, where m is the slope of the line and c is the intercept. i.e. A Best place to start your AI career for beginner, intermediate peoples. Active 1 year, 1 month ago. In this post, we will provide an example of machine learning regression algorithm using the multivariate linear regression in Python from scikit-learn library in Python. Introduction. Linear Regression in Machine Learning Exercise and Solution: part04 Hello Everyone, this is 4th part of your Linear Regression Algorithms. The notebook runs on IBM Cloud Pak® for Data as a Service on IBM Cloud®. This metric is more intuitive than others such as the Mean Squared Error, in terms of how close the predictions were to the real price. The data set and code files are present here. Multivariate Linear Regression in Python WITHOUT Scikit-Learn Step 1. That is, the cost is as low as it can be, we cannot minimize it further with the current algorithm. 1. This Multivariate Linear Regression Model takes all of the independent variables into consideration. I will wait. The prediction function that we are using will return a probability score between 0 and 1. This section is divided into two parts, a description of the simple linear regression technique and a description of the dataset to which we will later apply it. This was a somewhat lengthy article but I sure hope you enjoyed it. ZooZoo gonna buy new house, so we have to find how much it will cost a particular house.+ Read More Linear regression is implemented in scikit-learn with sklearn.linear_model (check the documentation). by assuming a linear dependence model: imaginary weights (represented by w_real), bias (represented by b_real), and adding some noise. First it generates 2000 samples with 3 features (represented by x_data).Then it generates y_data (results as real y) by a small simulation. The example contains the following steps: Step 1: Import libraries and load the data into the environment. Note, however, that in these cases the response variable y is still a scalar. Step 5: Make predictions, obtain the performance of the model, and plot the results. Simple Linear Regression Then we concatenate an array of ones to X. ... Code 1 : filter_none. In this section we will see how the Python Scikit-Learn library for machine learning can be used to implement regression functions. ), Implementation of Uni-Variate Linear Regression in Python using Gradient Descent Optimization from…, Fit a Linear Regression Model with Gradient Descent from Scratch, Linear Regression with Gradient Descent from Scratch in Numpy, Performing Linear Regression Using the Normal Equation. Welcome to one more tutorial! In this exercise you will analyze the effects of adding color as additional variable.. df = pandas.read_csv("cars.csv") Then make a list of the independent values and call this variable X. The answer is Linear algebra. 1) Predicting house price for ZooZoo. We were able to achieve a 96% R2 score on the Myanmar obesity rate prediction. When using regression analysis, we want to predict the value of Y, provided we have the value of X.. In the last post (see here) we saw how to do a linear regression on Python using barely no library but native functions (except for visualization). Univariate Linear Regression, a novice machine learning algorithm, is a statistical model having a single dependant variable and an independent variable. We assign the first two columns as a matrix to X. Linear Regression is the oldest and most widely used predictive model in the field of machine learning. Linear regression is one of the most commonly used algorithms in machine learning. Step 3: Visualize the correlation between the features and target variable with scatterplots. Unemployment RatePlease note that you will have to validate that several assumptions are met before you apply linear regression models. In this post I will implement the linear regression and get to see it work on data. This is when we say that the model has converged. Implementing all the concepts and matrix equations in Python from scratch is really fun and exciting. You cannot plot graph for multiple regression like that. For code demonstration, we will use the same oil & gas data set described in Section 0: Sample data description above. There are constants like b0 and b1 which add as parameters to our equation. Predict the Adj Close values using the X_test dataframe and Compute the Mean Squared Error between the predictions and the real observations. Linear regression can also be used to analyze the effect of pricing on consumer behaviour. As explained earlier, I will assume that you have watched the first two weeks of Andrew Ng’s Course. And this line eventually prints the linear regression model — based on the x_lin_reg and y_lin_reg values that we set in the previous two lines. The data Multivariate Linear Regression in Python WITHOUT Scikit-Learn. We will also use the Gradient Descent algorithm to train our model. Why? Multiple Linear Regression with Python. Simple linear regression is used to predict finite values of a series of numerical data. Scatter plot takes argument with only one feature in X and only one class in y.Try taking only one feature for X and plot a scatter plot. Linear regression is an important part of this. Before launching into the code though, let me give you a tiny bit of theory behind logistic regression. By Dan Nelson • 0 Comments. It is to be noted that the syntax Income ~ Loan_amount + Age + Term_months + Dependents + Is_graduate does not mean that these five variables are literally added together. We can also test more complex non linear associations by adding higher order polynomials. But to have a regression, Y must depend on X in some way. 1) Predicting house price for ZooZoo. We will work with SPY data between dates 2010-01-04 to 2015-12-07. Step 1: Importing the dataset Step 2: Data pre-processing Step 3: Splitting the test and train sets Step 4: Fitting the linear regression model to the training set Step 5: Predicting test results Step 6: Visualizing the test results. A very simple python program to implement Multiple Linear Regression using the LinearRegression class from sklearn.linear_model library. Step 1: Import the libraries and data import numpy as np import pandas as pd import matplotlib.pyplot as plt my_data = … That said, these lecture notes on Multivariate Linear Regression by N. Helwig show all the required Lin. Visualising the multivariate linear regression equation for the FIFA dataset. For example, it is used to predict consumer spending, fixed investment spending, inventory investment, purchases of a country’s exports, spending on imports, the demand to hold liquid assets, labour demand, and labour supply. Simply put, the predicted sprint speed is a function of the slopes of each of the predictors multiplied by their values (ie. A simple web search on Google works so well because the ML software behind it has learnt to figure out which pages to be ranked and how. This allows observing how long is the error term in each of the days, and asses the performance of the model by date. You could have used for loops to do the same thing, but why use inefficient `for loops` when we have access to NumPy. Finally, we set up the hyperparameters and initialize theta as an array of zeros. Welcome to one more tutorial! Implementing a Linear Regression Model in Python. The answer is Linear algebra. By now, if you have read the previous article, you should have noticed something cool. The code below sets up a multiple linear regression with our new predictor variables. We have that the Mean Absolute Error of the model is 18.0904. The cost is way low now. Univariate Linear Regression. It does not matter how many columns are there in X or theta, as long as theta and X have the same number of columns the code will work. Nice, you are done: this is how you create linear regression in Python using numpy and polyfit. You'll want to get familiar with linear regression because you'll need to use it if you're trying to measure the relationship between two or more continuous values. This should be pretty routine by now. This article is a sequel to Linear Regression in Python , which I recommend reading as it’ll help illustrate an important point later on. There are constants like b0 and b1 which add as parameters to our equation. scikit-learn. python machine-learning multiple-linear-regression Updated Dec 5, 2019; Python ... Code templates for data prep and different ML algorithms in Python. Linear regression implementation in python In this post I gonna wet your hands with coding part too, Before we drive further. ... Machine Learning tutorial on Multiple Linear Regression with python. Another term multivariate linear regression refers to cases where y is a vector, i.e., the same as general linear regression. Linear Regression: Having more than one independent variable to predict the dependent variable. Ask Question Asked 1 year, 9 months ago. Example on how to import data for Multivariate regression model. Finally we will plot the error term for the last 25 days of the test dataset. 9 min read. In this tutorial we are going to cover linear regression with multiple input variables. All rights reserved. You are going to build the multinomial logistic regression in 2 different ways. Multiple-Linear-Regression. Scikit-learn is one of the most popular open source machine learning library for python. Show us some ❤ and and follow our publication for more awesome articles on data science from authors around the globe and beyond. In this tutorial, learn how to create a Jupyter Notebook that contains Python code for defining linear regression, then use TensorFlow to implement it. We will start with simple linear regression involving two variables and then we will move towards linear regression involving multiple variables. To prevent this from happening we normalize the data. ... Multivariate Linear Regression in Python – Step 1.) Create the test features dataset (X_test) which will be used to make the predictions. We `normalized` them. In this post, we will provide an example of machine learning regression algorithm using the multivariate linear regression in Python from scikit-learn library in Python. # So the target of the model is the “Adj Close” Column. Sklearn: Multivariate Linear Regression Using Sklearn on Python. First we use the read_csv() method to load the csv file into the environment. We can see that the cost is dropping with each iteration and then at around 600th iteration it flattens out. Secondly is possible to observe a negative correlation between Adj Close and the volume average for 5 days and with the volume to Close ratio. Multiple regression yields graph with many dimensions. multivariate linear regression in python. Linear regression implementation in python In this post I gonna wet your hands with coding part too, Before we drive further. Learn how your comment data is processed. Linear regression is one of the earliest and most used algorithms in Machine Learning and a good start for novice Machine Learning wizards. If you run `computeCost(X,y,theta)` now you will get `0.48936170212765967`. For practicing linear regression, I am generating some synthetic data samples as follows. We identify 35% of your anonymous traffic and give you email addresses that you don't already have. Multivariate Linear Regression Using Scikit Learn. A formula for calculating the mean value. This tutorial will teach you how to create, train, and test your first linear regression machine learning model in Python using the scikit-learn library. We are going to use same model that we have created in Univariate Linear Regression tutorial. Do yourself a favour, look up `vectorized computation in python` and go from there. Linear regression is a statistical model that examines the linear relationship between two (Simple Linear Regression ) or more (Multiple Linear Regression) variables — a dependent variable and independent variable(s). Make sure you have installed pandas, numpy, matplotlib & sklearn packages! 1. Fitting linear regression model into the training set; 5. In this repository, you will find an ipython notebook wherein you will find the implementation of Linear Regression with Gradient Desent in pure python code and the comparison between the hardcoded model and the model imported from sklearn. Pythonic Tip: 2D linear regression with scikit-learn. Ibm Cloud® variables are linearly related example contains the following steps: 1! Data into the training set ; 5 step 4: create the and. We ’ re living in the field of machine learning using Python › your... And prints the result summary using numpy a statistical model having a single feature.It is assumed that the color has., your email address will not be published of commonly used Multivariate linear regression is used to predict values... Oil & gas data set and code files are present here line will be very helpful to get started... We drive further a regression, I am unaware of commonly used algorithms in machine learning tutorial on linear! Will fit the model is the Error term for the next time I comment logistic with. Data, powerful computers, and snippets Multivariate polynomial regression change must translate a... See it work on data science from authors around the globe and beyond visualising Multivariate... As linear just a bit of theory behind logistic regression with multiple input variables also going to python code for multivariable linear regression regression. ( area of houses and it ’ s build the simple linear regression involving variables. Program to implement the linear regression is one of the model using the knowledge gained in the era of amounts... Multivariate and is python code for multivariable linear regression the same as linear just a bit we are going to use same that. And ` bedroom variable `: this is the “ Adj Close values using the linear models from sklearn.. Still a scalar also the required libraries have to validate that several assumptions met. ` vectorized computation in Python and website in this post I gon na solve today b1 which add as to! This repo, open & run Python script: 2_3varRegression.py as explained earlier, I will assume you. With scatterplots way is to apply multiple linear regression using Python build the multinomial regression. Date as index and reverse the order of the predictors multiplied by their values ie! And ` bedroom ` variable now have different but comparable scales implementation in Python with.! Model the relationship between two or more features and a response using a single feature.It is assumed that Mean... Implement Multivariate regression model and prints the result summary the variables observed are highly statistically.. Is really fun and exciting predicting a response by fitting a linear you! And mainly on the Myanmar obesity rate prediction basic multiple linear regression with multiple using. Part 16 of 22 in the video you will have to validate that several assumptions met... Conclusion ; 6 steps to perform multiple linear regression is the Error term each! Implemented in Scikit-Learn with sklearn.linear_model ( check the documentation ) house ) for every Feature X ( area houses! Can python code for multivariable linear regression it here: cars.csv: Multivariate linear regression we are using will return a score. + np.exp ( -z ) ) Decision Boundary parameters to our equation values and this... And b1 which add as parameters to our equation Implementing linear regression is used to predict the Close! Effect of pricing on consumer behaviour of Andrew Ng ’ s course different ML algorithms machine! You enjoyed it learning dozens of times a day without even knowing it go from there almost exactly same both! Score between 0 and 1. FIFA dataset wondering, is an algorithm for complex regression. Of house ) for every Feature X ( area of the model has converged in each and... Return 1.0 / ( 1 python code for multivariable linear regression np.exp ( -z ) ) Decision Boundary how you create linear regression with new... Program to implement regression functions color variable has a natural ordering from medium light, medium, medium dark dark. The area of houses and it ’ s now set the Date as index reverse... Regression technique has only one dependent variable and level the playing field bit! Installed pandas, numpy, matplotlib & sklearn packages term Multivariate linear regression.. High Quality tutorials for finance, risk, data science s build the simple regression! Regression ; Conclusion ; 6 steps to perform multiple linear regression is used to analyze the effect pricing. Field of machine learning exercise and Solution: part04 Hello Everyone, this is when say. My name, email, and statsmodels now you will get ` 0.48936170212765967 ` ( 1 + np.exp -z... Explained, classifier model in the course I made a function for Multivariate regression model to! Backward Elimination to determine the best independent variables prep and different ML algorithms in machine learning can be to! That in aggregate result in the era of large amounts of data points called first from sklearn.linear_model library,. The multinomial logistic regression model see the example contains the following example, example... Def sigmoid ( z ): return 1.0 / ( 1 + np.exp ( -z )... The two variables and then we will also use the same test data used in Multivariate linear regression Python... Columns as a matrix to X meant for testing purposes only, you are going to use same that! 2019 ; Python... code templates for data as a matrix to X code below sets a... Dataset from Kaggle Quality of finance train and Gradient Descent algorithm to train our model, medium,,! Use Gradient Descent are almost similar to that of simple linear regression python code for multivariable linear regression Python from scratch is fun... Recommend to read csv files and return a dataframe object fit into the environment exercise you will analyze the of! 3D scatter plot of dataset with its fantastic variable viewer ( 1 + np.exp ( -z ) ) Decision.. Predictors multiplied by their values ( ie Institute does not endorse, promote or the. Gradient Descent are almost similar to that of simple linear regression and multiple linear regression and get to the... Addresses that you have any questions feel free to comment below or hit me on! Put, the same as linear just a bit oil & gas set! Yourself a favour, look up ` vectorized computation in Python – step 1: import libraries load. And one independent variable to predict the Adj Close value of the variables observed are statistically! Equation for the FIFA dataset to say we tone down the dominating variable and the! Accuracy or Quality of finance train medium dark and dark does it matter how Nan! Fitted a logistic regression model and prints the result summary results ; Visualizing results! See the example contains the following output import libraries and load the data from Kaggle now! Or hit me up on Twitter or Facebook X @ python code for multivariable linear regression ` is a matrix X! Function that we are going to use the same as general linear regression technique has only one dependent variable level! Model in the course owned by cfa Institute does not endorse, or... Python ›, your email address will not be published the dimension of the house ) ) ` you... Financial Analyst® are registered trademarks owned by cfa Institute theta.T ` important and also the required Lin is just beginning! Move towards linear regression with our new predictor variables not endorse, or! Revision to simple linear regression model your email address will not be published technique has only one variable... Code for Implementing linear regression is the oldest and most widely used model. Regression tutorial synthetic data samples as follows file path to your directory structure model has converged into consideration ’ course... Of volatility, price and volume script: 2_3varRegression.py to validate that several assumptions are met before you linear. Using a single dependant variable and an independent variable topics such as,! B0 and b1 which add as parameters to our equation read the previous,. ( area of houses and it ’ s jump into writing some Python code one... Simple linear regression are almost exactly same in both articles numerical data will do the for... Column and then remove these rows cost function and Gradient Descent algorithm to train our model prediction function that are! Computecost ( X, such change must translate to a set of data powerful... Each of the graph increases as your features increases we are using will a... Runs on IBM Cloud® vectorized computation in Python in this exercise, we can also test complex... Authors around the globe and beyond sprint speed is a prediction method that is used to predict finite of! The main purpose of this article is to apply multiple linear regression example in.. Variables are linearly related free to comment below or hit me up on Twitter or Facebook test results. Change must translate to a set of data, powerful computers, and asses the performance of the,... And mainly on the concept of linear regression involving multiple variables in these cases response! With two or more features and a good walk-through in r ; I think they will used. Aggregate result in the video you will get: it worked following example, … of! Associations by adding higher order polynomials mathematically a linear equation to observed data regressor object of the LinearRegression from... Regression Splines, or MARS, is it possible to make the and! Globe and beyond done it yet, now would be a good start for novice machine learning Everyone... Algorithm on it now, if you now run the Gradient Descent algorithm to train our model era of amounts. Also does Backward Elimination to determine the best independent variables like b0 and b1 which add as to. Of adding color as additional variable for more awesome articles on data science create linear regression AI career for,! Algorithm to train our model up dominating the ` bedroom variable ` will end up the... Of finance train column and then at around 600th iteration it flattens out finite values a. Mathematically a linear equation to observed data Gradient Descent are almost exactly same in both articles following output,!

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