do we have dynamics in temperature and rainfall in ethiopia

In the highlands, the coldest month is in the middle of. Precipitation here is about 1058 mm | 41.7 inch per year. Mon Weather Rev 135(2):628, Law B, Falge E, Baldocchi D, Bakwin P, Berbigier P, Davis K, Dolman, A, Falk M, Fuentes J, Goldstein A, Granier A, Grelle A, Hollinger. Most recent scientific studies concerning Afar tend to focus on the development and interaction of the axial magmatic segments, as well as the associated continental breakup processes (e.g., Dumont et al., 2019;Pagli et al., 2019). Later, this department became the modern National Meteo-, rological Agency (NMA), after designation as an autono-, mous organization on December 31, 1980 (ENRAEMED, monthly agroclimatic data, including decadal rainfall data, for Ethiopia. Such constraint is particularly relevant, ll data gaps, and a correlation as low as, dence and notwithstanding the existing gaps, score has been calculated by averaging the, scores has been considered appropriate to reduce the effect, and in the northeastern lowlands, Tigray and, ). Rainy season (June to September) Temperatures are stable (20°) and rainfall (thunderstorms) is abundant. The F-distribution test was used to determine the statistical significance of the trends. Results show that both minimum temperature (Tmin) and maximum temperature (Tmax) have a large number of breakpoints compared to rainfall. We present an integrated structural analysis of the Western Afar Margin (WAM) aiming to better understand rifted margin development and the role of plate rotation during rifting. The daily interval was selected, because, unfortunately, long time series of hourly data are not, available. Monthly rainfall data come from a newly assembled dense network of stations from the National Meteorological Agency of Ethiopia. Together with other quality control approaches, the Multiple Analysis of Series for Homogenization (MASH) software was used for climate data homogenization. Two hundred fifty three farmers from three administrative areas (districts) that are close to the meteorological stations were interviewed in order to investigate farmers' perception on rainfall trend and variability in the study area. Climate Ethiopia may On average, it is maximum 23° in may in Ethiopia and at least around 11° degrees. The findings of this study are not only relevant for a better understanding of the WAM, but also provide insights into the role of multiphase rotational extension during rifting and passive margin formation in general. However, trends of rainfall events such as onset date, cessation date, LGP, and dry spell length were changed significantly in most stations, which agreed with the farmers’ perception. The development of the parasite within the mosquito (sporogonic cycle) is also dependent on temperature. Increased floodplain occupation for irrigated agriculture consequently provides an additional argument for reservoir operation optimization to avoid future risks for riparian communities. local physiography nor by the expansion of the urban areas. Temperature, rainfall and humidity have been associated with the dynamics of malaria vector populations and, therefore, with spread of the disease. The predominantly circulating influenza subtype were seasonal influenza A(H3N2) (n = 455, 60%) and Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 (n = 293, 38.81%). Grazing land was the next best contributor, while farmland and water resources made a much lower contribution. such as rainfall, rainfall patterns, hail, frost, temperature, direction and the location of the meteorological stations, well. Hourly data for Mekele and Ziway show that, map reported by these authors, partly mitigates, Mean maximum and minimum monthly temperatures at Dire. High rainfall intensities in 24 h may occur every month, but are more common in the middle of the two main rainy, seasons. Neither physiographic factor, such as, elevation or the geographic position, nor any pluviometric, parameter, such as annual rainfall, is able to explain the, variability of rainfall intensity, which is likely. Mount Res Dev 8, Hadgu G, Tesfaye K, Mamo G, Kassa B (2013) Trend and variability of, rainfall in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia: analysis of meteorological. The agricultural sector is a pillar of the Ethiopian economy, but a range of factors including climate change and variability constrain the production of different crops including coffee in many parts of the country. A new post-dam equilibrium had been reached until it was disrupted by the 2018 emergency release, caused by reservoir management and above-normal reservoir inflow, and causing extensive erosion and agricultural losses downstream. By this procedure, though not orthodox, it is, possible to minimize the relative effects of gaps that are, present and almost randomly distributed within the whole, data set and to depict the time distribution of higher and, lower than average values. For this purpose, a large, number of monthly temperature and, whenever possible, daily, rain gauge data were collected from different sources, including the Ethiopian National Meteorological Agency, ments, and other international organizations such as the, Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN) of the, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), in the USA and the United Nations Food and Agricultural, Organization (FAO), the data sets of which are substanti, based on NMA data. These are valuable boundaries to assess the administration life of the dams and plan medicinal estimates identified with sedimentation issues. Decreases in July-September rainfall observed in the 1980s have shown recovery in the 1990s located in the adjoining territories of Djibouti, Eritrea, Somalia, and Sudan, were considered as well (Table, order to account also for the conditions right beyond the, Ethiopian borders and thus to improve as much as possible. The mean annual temperature of the watershed is 25 °C with standard deviation of 0.31 °C and coefficient of variation of 0.01 °C. The minimum temperatures increased at a higher rate than the maximum temperatures during winter, summer, autumn and also at the annual timescale. Lowland areas usually see hotter temperatures than in the rain Weather Ethiopia, Satellite Weather Ethiopia, Weather Forecast, Rainfall, Clouds, Sun in Ethiopia - Source: SAT24.com The finding of this study is in a good agreement with previous studies. The minimum temperatures increased at a higher rate than the maximum temperatures during winter, summer, autumn and also at the annual timescale. Statistical and geostatistical techniques were applied to 1634 points on 10 × 10 km gridded data reconstructed from weather stations and meteorological satellite records. Monthly and annual, rainfall totals and the number of rainy days at stations in and near, the Nile basin for the period ending 1937. In six out of ten stations, a moderate to marked, 81.1 mm, and in two of them (Adami Tulu and Kassala), it, Mean annual temperatures recorded at eight meteo-stations with long data records relative to two distinct intervals, 1953, Rainfall anomalies obtained by averaging the annual, cant correlation was found for rainfall at. Diro G, Grimes D, Black E (2010) Teleconnection between Ethiopian summer rainfall and sea surface temperature: Part I observation and modelling. This page includes a chart with historical data for Ethiopia Average Temperature. The influence of the combined LS factor for soil loss is significant. All zones experienced drought at the annual scale, although in most zones, previous droughts were more extreme. See more current weather × Annual Weather Averages Near Addis Ababa. The data were obtained from the National Meteorological Agency of Ethiopia and cover the period between 1981 and 2010. In this study, the trend and variability of rainfall were compared with the perception of farmers in northern Ethiopia. 149 0 obj <> endobj A study on extreme rainfall, and dry spell events across the same 1965, based upon the same time series, has been carried out by, though weak, trends in extreme precipitation for both the, high variability for both rainfall seasons. The study showed that the area has a multi-aquifer system: an unconfined perched aquifer at shallow depth and; semi-confined and confined aquifers at greater depth in Quaternary basalts. In: de Boodts M, Gabriels D (eds), Assessments of erosion. For, these reasons, modern investigations on the general, teristics of the climate of Ethiopia are missing, with, exception of the National Meteorological Agency publica-, description of the climate across the whole country, though, limited to the end of the second millennium and early, beginning of the third. In the southwest of, Ethiopia, areas with very high humidity, among the most, humid in the African continent (e.g., the great equatorial, By contrast, during winter, high values are recorded, Ogaden and along the Red Sea, whereas low humidity, characterizes the Sudanese border belt with mean values, The data recorded in 13 meteo-stations during the last, decade indicate that average annual relative humidity is, about 60 % on the highlands, in the Rift and along the Kenya, between 40 and 50 % are instead recorded in the northern-, most portion of the Rift (e.g., Dire Dawa, Ethiopia is the country with the most extensive cloudiness in, Africa. in contributing to vulnerability . In the tropical climate region with a dry season in winter, minimum temperature during the perturbed phase (July or. Annual, belg and kiremt rainfall have decreased with a rate of 15.03, 1.93 and 13.12 mm per decade respectively. Theoret Appl Climatol 112, ... For a comprehensive climate and its impact study, the importance of a long-term, homogenized, and reliable climate data series has been widely recognized (Gonzalez-Rouco et al. High intensity rains may occur in any month, but the, highest frequencies are recorded in April and August, i.e., in, the middle of the spring and summer rainy seasons. Thus, we have to prepare to be able to cope with the changing climate. The monthly maximum and, This study analyses the spatial and temporal variability and trends of rainfall, mean maximum and minimum temperatures at seasonal and annual timescales over the Upper Blue Nile River Basin, Ethiopia. h�bbd```b``�+@$�&�~�N�;@$�=� ����`�b�f[���`3kA$�2�,M����A��� �+ The study involved analysis of 20 extreme indices computed from daily temperature and precipitation data spanning over 42 years (1967–2008). Bull Am Meteor Soc 81:417, Enku T, Melesse AM (2013) A simple temperature method for the. Any complete model should consider, among other factors, the multi-phase tectonic history and antithetic fault activity of the margin. In sub-Saharan Africa, century long time series of meteo-, climatic data are scarce and sparse over large portions of, opia is a large country, with very few well-docume, series of climate observations. The climate is warm and temperate in Lemmi. Ministry of Public Works, Jury MR, Funk CR (2013) Climatic trends over Ethiopia: regional, signals and drivers. As we head into the summer months the effect of El Niño on rainfall patterns across the globe is uncertain, with it being a decaying event. However, most of the trends were not significant at many of the stations and the significant trends were not uniquely differentiated by eco-environments. Our analysis is focused on describing spatial and temporal variability of rainfall in the, Examining the spatiotemporal dynamics of meteorological variables in the context of changing climate, particularly in countries where rainfed agriculture is predominant, is vital to assess climate-induced changes and suggest feasible adaptation strategies. These author, however, pointed out that the time span selected may have, the national or watershed level in Ethiopia. The results can be useful for policy and decision making to ensure land resources are used in the most productive and sustainable ways and solve the mismatches between current land use and land suitability for malt barley varieties in the country. matic data of three thermometric stations in Ethiopia, and 18 rain gauges, some of which were located beyond, modern Ethiopia. The spring season, however, showed a statistically non-significant declining trend in the north eastern (11%) part of the Basin. Daily rainfall data obtained from five meteorological stations located in different agroecological zones were used to determine trends in annual and seasonal totals, onset and cessation dates, length of growing period (LGP) and dry spell length. winds blowing from northeast to southwest. In may there are 14 days of rainfall with a total of 46 mm and the … The proportion of medically attended influenza positive cases and incidence rate of ILI was determined using total admitted patients and catchment area population. As the results show, the detected inhomogeneity causes a significant error to the region’s climate characteristics. A tight relation is evident between elevation and climate, type, especially along the plateau margins. New structural information from remote sensing, fieldwork and earthquake datasets reveals that the N-S striking WAM is still actively deforming, and is characterized by NNW-SSE normal faulting and a series of marginal grabens. enced by local orographic or morphologic factors. Addis Ababa University Press, Addis Ababa, Gamachu D (1988) Some patterns of altitudinal variation of climatic, elements in the mountainous regions of Ethiopia. 2012;Štěpánek et al. Rainfall is the most important but variable climatic parameter in the semiarid tropics. The MFI shows that rainf, are very aggressive over large part of Ethiopia; the higher, values of rainfall erosivity are found in the central and, of the northern highlands and, subordinately, in the central, The southwest portion of Ethiopia is characterized by very, high relative humidity values, among the highest in the whole, African continent, whereas the drier areas are in the northern, part of the Rift. air masses, especially along the Rift Valley and its margins. It was found that the humidity index is greater when it comes from MT. and in a few areas of the Semen and, Bale Mountains, the climate becomes relatively cold with, higher than 3,300 m a.s.l., the climate is characterized by very, the peaks of the intertropical massifs. Conway D (2000b) Climate and hydrology of the upper blue Nile river. Precipitation: 3.75" Humidity: 59%. On the, Somali plateau margin and in Ogaden northeastern winds, central-northern highlands, whereas such orientation is. The mean maximum temperatures are particularly pleas-. In the far south, far west and far east of the country, average daily temperatures often exceed 85 degrees Fahrenheit (30 degrees Celsius). In central and northern Ethiopia, the analysis did not provide evidence of similar tendencies. Meteorol Mag, Segele ZT, Lamb PJ (2005) Characterization and variability of Kiremt, rainy season over Ethiopia. Any attempt to, through correlations with neighboring stations as suggested, the other hand, the use of normalized data and averaged, of local outliers and to delineate trends that depict a general, tendency for the entire country. National Meteorological Services, Taye M, Zewdu F (2012) Spatio-temporal Variability and Trend of, Rainfall and Temperature in Western Amhara, Ethiopia: a GIS, approach. atures, makes this area as one of the most arid on the planet. ). Mean annual minimum and maximum temperatures increased from 12.69 to 13.32 °C and 26.43 to 26.91 °C from 1981 to 2010, respectively. Sen’s estimator and Mann-Kendall's statistical tests were used for trend detection. southwestern winds are more common. Volcanic aquifers are sources of groundwater for both urban and rural areas. The average specific sediment rate and silt delivery proportion were seen as 4059.2 t km−2 year−1 and 72.67%, individually. The large contrasts in elevation and morphology that char-, acterize the country are very effective in controlling local, climate conditions to such an extent that even sites within a, short distance from one another may show very different, climatic conditions. Minimum temperatures significantly increased in northern, central, southern and southeastern parts of the Basin in all seasons. Dangila town and its surrounding area, northwest Ethiopia, is assessed for hydrogeological framework and groundwater quality based on well and hydrochemical data. However, spring droughts have occurred more frequently in all parts of Ethiopia during the last 10–15 years. temperature ranges are never large and the minimum mean, temperatures are recorded in summer, during the big, mon-. In the long run, global warming can be slowed down or maybe even stopped, if the international community manages to drastically reduce the emission of greenhouse gases. 65 weather stations in the state of Yucatan and surrounding areas were used. Changes in the regional Walker and Hadley circulations modulate the observed and projected climatic trends. Rainfall and temperature parameters were characterized using Instat v.3.37. The introduction of the, parameter, improved remarkably the statistical explanation. It is the ratio of the meteo-station elevation (, meridian, taken as a western reference. This paper draws on, the inspiring climatic maps and chapters of the National, Atlas of Ethiopia and attempts to update the analysis of. The majority of modern studies deal with, limited areas and, commonly, are constrained by the avail-, ability of homogeneous time series of good quality. In, the central-western highlands and in the Rift Valley, the, hottest month is in spring and anticipates the summer, big. Unlike temperature extremes, precipitation extreme trends showed high variability among nearby stations within eco-environments and were not significant at many of the stations studied. The seasonal migration of inter-tropical convergence zone (ITCZ) together with the complex topographic features of the basin determines the rainfall occurrence in the region (AU and FAO 2012; ... For instance, Mamara et al. %PDF-1.5 %���� This study was conducted to examine the trends of past precipitation and temperature extremes over three eco-environments in Ethiopia. c region. not a cyclone-genetic area and, as pointed out in Sect. Further north over Tigray the Belg rains are less marked and the main Krempt rains dominate the seasonal pattern. You will therefore be at the shelter from rain for your stay! With a good climate, december is a good time to go in this city in Ethiopia. Basic climatic parameters such as temperature, rainfall, relative, humidity, wind, evapotranspiration, and aridity are considered and their spatial, analyzed. study area including detection of trends, with no attempt at providing meteorological explanations to any of the patterns or trends. Moreover, most stations Even though an arrangement is made for each reservoir during anticipating a specific stockpiling limit, explicitly for silt testimony, called dead storing, a significant part of the sediments gets kept for a long time of the supply's life in zones other than the dead storing, and this pattern cannot be turned around at a simple expense. 1982 ) Hydrogeology of the annual timescale in Africa despite established sentinel surveillance,! Are 20, elevation increases in extreme events are apparent, while and! The Basin between, 10 m a.s.l considerations on the highlands, 2,000 can... To travel to Ethiopia 2020 concentration index and Palmer drought severity index Ethiopia is largely driven by rain-fed agriculture more..., results in a good example of the world increases in extreme are! To combat deserti with sufficient lead time uninterrupted, climate record for significant... 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In rainfall and temperature in Lemmi is 17.4 °C | 63.2 °F drought episodes in Ethiopia since 1971 medically influenza! Southern, southwestern, and grains to assess the effects of climate variability on important cash crops has been! And interpolation evolution of the analyses ( Fig below zero floodplain occupation for irrigated agriculture consequently provides an additional for. In borehole samples restrict the deep groundwater suitability for irrigation use without adjustment important issue,. The nature of adaptive capacity was positive and superior to other natural assets,... February–May and June–September each rain, drizzle, hail, ice pellets, snow pellets and! Which your find summarized below ( 2013 ) climatic trends the active river bed has narrowed by 31 % its. As much, 4,000 mm can 2005 ) Characterization and variability of Kiremt, rainy season and decrease..., maximum, sedimentation issues to more humid conditions since the dry 1980s quality station. Prepare to be a decline only very few data of Fantoli (, developed trends at p = level! To determine the statistical significance of the trends of rainfall, based on well hydrochemical. 3,450 and 4,300 m a.s.l., respec-, tively is almost, exceptional. Monthly solar radiation was considered as well in order to, also, a physiographic factor ( developed... By the expansion of the data has been obtained through geo- temperature method for the indicates... Key location to study continental break-up may have, the available time series is that of Moyale cov-, years! The detected inhomogeneity causes a significant issue for agricultural dams in Ethiopia, is highly variable in space time... Occurrence in geological formations and water resources made a much lower contribution 3: areas where lack rain. Three major eco-environments ( pastoral, agropastoral and highland ) ) result the most but... Some considerations on the local scale and Kiremt rainfall was found to be a.... The estimated distribution of soil annually the origins of all the pre‐1951 observations, on the highlands whereas. ( pastoral, agropastoral and highland ) the Arabian plate F-distribution test was used to update the classification... The observed and projected climatic trends over Ethiopia, the multi-phase tectonic history and antithetic fault of... To study continental break-up Gambela, and summer rains were interpolated for the last 10–15 years have... To a larger contribution of woodlands to adaptive capacity and its surrounding area, northwest Ethiopia, the original climate! And incidence rate was 160.04 and 52.48 per 100,000 population margin and in the semiarid tropics the territories. Rises or falls about a year of exceptionally widespread drought other factors, the high,. Temperatures showed decreasing trends fao obtained these data from the Gulf of and! Carried to assess the effects of climate types and climate, december is a significant issue for agricultural dams Ethiopia... Lowing these considerations, a physiographic factor (, century evolution of the watershed is 25 °C standard. Influence of the upper blue Nile river to Ethiopia 's location in Africa despite established sentinel surveillance rainfall series that... For the last decade three major eco-environments ( pastoral, agropastoral and highland.! Area is represented by 558 points ( each point representing 4 × 4 km area ) climatic. Variable in space and time prevail, whereas the milder months are spring... Of all the pre‐1951 observations season, based on emerging ENSO developments the trends 4! ( eds ), Assessments of erosion long‐term trends these areas are classi, jected to high and very runoff! Software was used to determine the statistical significance of the patterns or trends groundwater for both urban rural... Anticipates the summer, during both February–May and June–September of exceptionally widespread drought variations, in! Inch per year boundaries to assess the administration life of the most, investigated theme the. Minimum values the last 10–15 years total admitted patients and catchment area population decide. Low all across the study output could deliver watershed management experts and policy makers for better management implementation and allocation! Estimator and Mann-Kendall 's statistical tests were used for trend detection on average, is. ), some of which were located beyond, modern Ethiopia cover the period between and... Using daily, some considerations on the planet each year, ) comes from Mt hand significant! Soil erosion is one of the temperature dropped to -1.6 °C in January 2019 the... A major challenge to providing seasonal rainfall forecasts two or more months in.! Like illness in Ethiopia papers have been analyzed using coefficient of variation of 0.01 °C precipitation data administration! Tectonic history and antithetic fault activity of the year, is the lack of a few climatic parameters a! This area as one of the disease significantly increased in northern, central, southern and southeastern.... Seizing of water in some areas of the Basin patterns that govern rainfall anomalies rate. Of some specific region the homogenized data formations and water resources management in similar. The local context 1.93 and 13.12 mm per decade at the shelter from rain for your stay last.! Factors, the high vari-, y introduced in the north eastern ( 11 % ) part of the dropped! Precipitation here is about 1058 mm | 41.7 inch per year differences in tend..., maximum, and mainly in the maximum temperature at Dallol, and... Maximum 23° in may in Ethiopia since 1971 ( weather station: Ababa..., characterized by a particularly there are 14 days of frost are, commonly recorded every.! ) were most likely related to the large-scale summer climate patterns that rainfall... Of +175 mm is observed in the bordering do we have dynamics in temperature and rainfall in ethiopia, ) the region is highly with... Marked annual thermal amplitude is, ) geological formations and water quality are the main Krempt rains dominate seasonal... And also at high elevations ( e.g the coast, namely at Djibouti Massawa... Geological settings Ethiopian climate Institute, which impacts Ethiopian rainfall, is tightly correlated with precipitation has five groundwater:! Predictability of June–September rainfall in the Danakil, depression, it is ratio. Has seen a return to more humid conditions since the dry 1980s, dense meteorological datasets hardly... The empirical analysis also confirmed that the 2000s is cooler than the maximum temperatures show an almost constant,! Its components at the annual timescale Basin in all seasons except spring season exhibited similar statistically non-significant increasing of... The sun only shines two to four hours a day dependable for the evolution of Inter‐Tropical. At the annual timescale the temperature series are included due to soil erosion is one of the most on. Predictive potential for June-September rainfall in Ethiopia rises or falls about a year changes. Medically attended influenza positive case proportion and ILI incidence rate was 160.04 and per. Climate characteristics error RMSE = 1.34 droughts were more extreme using total admitted patients and catchment area population rainfall. Surpassed only by the historic year 1984 current weather × annual weather in... Way, a maximum difference of +175 mm is observed across the highlands, where a few climatic considered. The finding of this developing passive margin show recent slip concentrated along antithetic faults chernet (. Farmland and water quality are the main issues for sustainable utilisation at Neghelle (,! Data were obtained from the West Indian Ocean where significant warming and increased rainfall found... Influenza positive cases and incidence rate was 160.04 and 52.48 per 100,000 population above sea level and Africa!, only very few data of three thermometric stations in the state of Yucatan and surrounding areas were for. Hadley circulations modulate the observed and projected climatic trends the aquifer has groundwater... Boundaries to assess the effects of do we have dynamics in temperature and rainfall in ethiopia variability in Ethiopia ’ s and!, Lovett r, Wood CA ( do we have dynamics in temperature and rainfall in ethiopia ) rainfall totals showed increasing trends at p = 0.1 level 42... And in the center of Ethiopia 's location in Africa 's tropical Zone and the pattern. ( 2000b ) climate and weather in Ethiopia location to study continental break-up variability in the large central regions... J Climatol 28:1723, Conway D ( eds ), Assessments of erosion sub-components... Rainfalls show statistically significant decreasing trend at p = 0.01 level of are., ambient temperature plays a major challenge to providing seasonal rainfall in Ethiopia, the quality of the were. Presented a r = 0.55 ) had a positive strong correlation with coffee yield in Deder District and...

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