a region of high rainfall in africa

Regions 3 and 4 show a single maximum in the boreal summer and autumn. The most important differentiating climatic element is rainfall; this, together with several other climatic elements, depends upon the characteristics of the dominating air mass. The amount of heat from the sun plays a major role in determining climate. In the desert regions of the Sahara, Namib and Kalahari rainfall often drops to under a hundred cm a year. First, extreme events are rare by definition, hence difficult to record. Most of Africa is divided into wet and dry seasons. 2013; Nicholson 2017, respectively) and a precursor to the WAM in its coastal phase (May–June) and over the Sahel (July–September) (Nicholson and Grist 2003). North Africa has an arid desert climate, with high temperatures and very little precipitation (although temperatures in the mountains and the Sahara at nighttime can drop below freezing).  Most of Africa lies in the tropical or subtropical region. These quantify the strength of seasonality, and the wet-season start- and end-dates, length, total rainfall amount, number of rain days and rainfall intensity. However, because rainfall in this area is often localized—sometimes almost at the level of one farm—it's difficult to forecast accurately with satellite data, which show larger weather patterns. In East Africa Rodhe and Virji (1976)used agraphical technique inexamining the nature of trend of annual rainfall of 35 stations concentrated mainly i~~Kenya and northern Tanzania. The forms of non-randomness which are investigated include linear trends, persistence and quasi-periodic fluctuations. Warming of the oceans enhances the stability of the tropical atmosphere and weakens deep ascent in the Hadley circulation. New Delhi: Scientists have found that aerosols like black carbon and dust, which makes the Indo-Gangetic Plain one of the most polluted regions of the world, have led to increased incidents of high rainfall events in the foothills of the Himalayan Region, according to an official statement. Temperatures are relatively high throughout the year and the majority of the In the northern and southern extremities of the continent, there is a dry summer subtropical, or Mediterranean, type of climate. The warm temperate upland climatic region is found on the Highveld of Southern Africa. 4.1 Modified Equatorial Climate of the Coast. These quantify the strength of seasonality, and the wet-season start- and end-dates, length, total rainfall amount, number of rain days and rainfall intensity. In some areas, like the Sahel zone, there are large differences in rainfall every year. Average annual rainfall exceeds 200cm to 250cm. Africa straddles the Equator from 37⁰ N to 34⁰ S. Africa has two Sub-tropical belts with the ITCZ somewhat equidistant from the two high pressure zones. Differences in temperature between day and night or often larger than between summer and winter. Yet, these regions are densely inhabited and are net exporters of high-quality agricultural products. African deserts are the sunniest and the driest parts of the continent, owing to the prevailing presence of the subtropical ridge with subsiding, hot, dry air masses. Usually between 30 000 and 50 000 litres. East Africa, consisting of Uganda, Kenya, and Tanzania, straddles the equator. Predicting shifts in rainfall patterns in South Africa is much less certain. During the period of high sun, the maritime air masses produce up to six months of rainfall, the length of the rainy season depending on nearness to the Equator. The coldest regions of Africa lie in the eastern highlands and southern Africa. The summer rainfall over the JJAS region is negatively correlated with ENSO. We used rainfall and temperature records between 1987 and 2016 from 46 weather stations across South Africa to calculate annual rainfall seasonality characteristics using two methods. 7. The air masses of relevance to the African climate may be broadly classified as maritime tropical, maritime equatorial, continental tropical, maritime polar, and continental polar. In the last decades droughts have caused hunger and starvation in many part of the Sahel and Ethiopia. We used rainfall and temperature records between 1987 and 2016 from 46 weather stations across South Africa to calculate annual rainfall seasonality characteristics using two methods. It decreases the farther you move away from the equator. only received major rainfall half of the year and dry season the other half. The central portion of the continent is wetter, with tropical rainforests, grasslands, and semi-arid climates. Iquitos (Peru), Akassa and Ocean Island receive 261 cm, 366cm and 213cm of rain per annum respec­tively. We then explored how these characteristics … During this time heavy rain falls every day in the afternoon. Rising temperatures, drought and erratic rainfall are making growing coffee harder. Instead of spring, summer, fall, and winter, most countries south of the Sahara Desert have dry and rainy seasons. The climate is humid with a tropical regime. Clear blue skies are characteristic. They differ from true desert regions in being just within reach of the ITCZ in the course of its seasonal movement and therefore receiving more rainfall. Tropical Savanna - Tropical. As the coastal region is a high rainfall area and the showers are often of higher intensity than in other areas, larger tanks are recommended to contain the additional rainfall. Because areas with an equatorial climate are constantly covered by warm maritime air masses, variations in their monthly and daily temperatures are less pronounced than in the tropical wet-and-dry regions. No long-term trends in African rainfall are evident. Tropical rainforests extend to the north and south of the equator. The climate across West Africa varies from arid to tropical monsoon conditions. Simply click wherever you want on the map to access it. tips of Africa. For the multi-region sector average R j, the first step is an arithmetic average of the standardized departures from all I stations within the sector that are available for the season or year in question. Problem. Rainfall varies from 500 to 1 100 mm with a short winter dry season. Plant life is influenced by the amount of rainfall. In the four equatorial regions rainfall tends to peaks in the boreal spring and autumn. This report provides a general overview of the regional climate in southern Africa. These northern and southern air masses meet at the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ). Its rainfall regime is similar to that of the tropical wet-and-dry climate, but temperatures are greatly modified by the altitude; frost, for example, occasionally occurs in Lesotho. The Sahara is moving southward and more and more areas are threatened by deforestation. Hot, dry continental air masses originating from the high pressure system above the Sahara Desert give rise to dusty Harmattan winds over most of West Africa from November to February. Semiarid climatic regions fringe the desert areas and include the greater part of the land south of the Zambezi River. This subregion has little variation in temperature over the year—it is always hot, with an average temperature of 80°F. The regional rainfall pattern for the 2019/20 agricultural season is encouraging, as parts of southern Africa are expected to receive adequate rainfall in the first half of the season. Name the 3 most important rainfall regions in South Africa. This is experienced in the coastal region of E.Africa. Countries in this region comprise of South Africa, Zimbabwe, Zambia, Swaziland, Namibia, Mozambique, Malawi, Lesotho, Botswana, and Angola. For that reason, this formulation is conventionally used in studies of interannual variability of African rainfall. The performance of six satellite-based and three newly released reanalysis rainfall estimates are evaluated at daily time scale and spatial grid size of 0.25 degrees during the period of 2000 to 2013 over the Upper Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia, with the view of improving the reliability of precipitation estimates of the wet (June to September) and secondary rainy (March to May) seasons. The humid subtropical marine climate is restricted to the southeast coast of Africa. © Gayaza High School Geography Department The Sahara Desert is the massive but largely empty region in North Africa that contains the world's largest hot deserts; The Maghreb is a region of northwest Africa encompassing the coastlands and Atlas Mountains of Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia. Marked variations in the rhythm of equatorial climate sometimes occur. Region 1, the easternmost region, has more rainfall in the boreal spring, similar to eastern equatorial Africa. Climate is shaped by the interaction of several interrelated factors; the most significant are altitude (topography) and rainfall. In addition to aridity, the desert climate is characterized by high mean monthly temperatures; the diurnal (daily) temperature range is, however, greater than the annual range of the mean monthly temperature. Among the many explanations that have been suggested are that the presence of a cold body of water offshore chills the lower layers of the maritime air mass and makes it stable, that the body of cold air that forms offshore diverts the incoming airstreams to the west and east of the anomalously dry area, that there is a strong tendency for the winds to blow parallel to the shore during the rainy seasons, that the absence of highlands deprives the region of orographic (mountain) rainfall, that fluctuations in the offshore moisture-bearing winds occur during the rainy season and reduce rainfall, and that local meteorological peculiarities of thunderstorms contribute to the reduction in rainfall. around Malindi, Mombasa, Tanga, Dar es Salaam, Kilwa etc. The use of high-resolution rainfall data inherently accounts for the temporal distribution of rainfall intensity. The convergence zone moves southward, dipping into Southern Africa. Second, the near bisection of the continent by the Equator results in a largely symmetrical arrangement of climatic zones on either side. South Africa experiences a high degree of sunshine with rainfall about half of the global average, increasing from west to east, and with semi-desert regions in the north-west. In summer, moist equatorial air masses originating over the Atlantic Ocean bring annual monsoon rains (Nicholson, 2013). TROPICAL WET. Rising greenhouse gases have boosted rainfall in the Sahel region of Africa, easing droughts that killed 100,000 people in the 1970s and 1980s, in … For example, the rainfall may be monsoonal and the second rainy season may be all but nonexistent. This region is characterized by rainfall throughout the year, but it is heaviest in summer. The Southern region of Africa lies in the southernmost part of the continent, as the name implies. In fact, the climate of Africa is more variable by rainfall amount than by temperatures, which are consistently high. Here we analyze the relationship between El Ni˜no Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and South Africa austral winter rainfall using a 682 raingauges daily rainfall database documenting the … Regions with the equatorial, or tropical wet, type of climate, or variants thereof, are the wettest in Africa. This is because the incremental time-steps are small enough, i.e. Mean monthly temperatures are lower than in tropical climates, dropping to about 50 °F (10 °C) in winter, while summer (June–July in North Africa, and December–January in Southern Africa) temperatures may sometimes exceed those of tropical climates. Most of Africa is divided into wet and dry seasons. In Africa: Highveld grassland. Typical climatic conditions consist of high, seasonally well- distributed rainfall and a small range of temperature except in locations where the seasonal shifting of the trade winds leaves a part of the year relatively drier. Stormwater tanks are also required in built-up areas to slow the volume of water entering the drainage system during a high rainfall event. But the most notable anomaly can be observed on the western African coast from around Cape Three Points, Ghana, eastward to Benin, where, although the bimodal rainfall regime prevails, the total annual precipitation is less than 40 inches (1,000 millimetres). Our latest episode for parents features the topic of empathy. Other mountains with high rainfall include the Outeniqua Mountain, mountains of the South-western Cape and the Winterberg and Amatola Mountains, in the central parts of the Eastern Cape. Humidity is always high, making life in this region very unpleasant. First, most of the continent—which extends from 35° S to about 37° N latitude—lies within the tropics. Moreover, a quasi-permanent subtropical high-pressure cell (the Saharan anticyclone) develops in the heart of northern Africa, while in Southern Africa the belt of high pressure on land weakens during the time of high sun (the season when the Sun is overhead—in December and January in the south). Tropical Savanna - Tropical. Summer rainfall in one of the world's most drought-prone regions can now be predicted months or years in advance, climate scientists at the Met Office and the University of Exeter say. Areas that experience tropical monsoon climate include areas along the coastal belt e.g. While these factors help to account for the broad climatic patterns of the African continent, there are nevertheless numerous local variations to be found from place to place within the same climatic zone. It has a hot, humid climate along the coast and around Lake Victoria, but cooler climates in the highlands and mountains. While the Western Cape has a Mediterranean climate with winter rainfall, most of the country experiences summer rain. The recent decline in Horn of Africa rainfall during the March–May “long rains” season has fomented drought and famine, threatening food security in an already vulnerable region. The Indo-Gangetic Plains located South and upwind of the Himalayan foothills. As in the desert and semiarid climatic zones, mean monthly temperatures show less variation than daily temperatures. The region’s terrain ranges from grasslands and deserts to forests. It is therefore susceptible to forcings from remote oceans and regional land alike. The rainfall is high and ranges between 1000mm and 1800mm. These are the hot desert, semiarid, tropical wet-and-dry, equatorial (tropical wet), Mediterranean, humid subtropical marine, warm temperate upland, and mountain regions. The highest temperatures of the continent are measured in the desert regions of the Sahara, where daytime temperatures reach up to 50°C.  Nights can be cool and frosty, even during the summer. Central Asia: Mongolian Region: The region lies in the heart of the conti­nent containing a vast territory of mountains, and plateaus from Tibet to Mongolia. The rainforests consist of various layers of vegetation, from shrubs and ferns on the ground to trees that grow up to a height of 50 metres. The Llanos of Columbia is characterized by mean annual rainfall of 200cm-400cm (near Andes Mountain), mean annual temperature of 22°C, and maximum temperature of 32°C. We evaluated the combined aspects of anomalous high rainfall and concurrent soil saturation in a RVF forecast model for South Africa, using accurate temporal and spatial records of the 2008–2011 epidemics to derive risk maps (Directorate of Animal Health, Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, pers. Extreme rainfall in West Africa: A regional modeling ... rainfall extremes in order to provide regional maps of high quantiles of the distributions (typically, 20 to 100 year or higher return period values), thus allowing to estimate these quantiles at nonobserved sites. (a) Shows the percentage of normal rainfall received over Eastern Africa in October–December 2019 from TAMSATv3 (mean based on 1985–2019). hourly or sub-hourly, to represent different intensities. In order to understand the distribution of natural vegetation, agriculture, wildlife, and domestic livestock in Africa, we must consider climate. The rainiest areas are the Lake Victoria basin, the mountains, and the coastal islands, which receive more than 59 inches … Less hot than the continental tropical are the maritime tropical and maritime equatorial air masses, which originate from the Indian and South Atlantic oceans, respectively; they differ only in that the maritime equatorial air mass is unstable and brings rain while the maritime tropical air mass, when fully developed, is stable and does not normally bring rain unless it is forced to rise by a high mountain. In contrast, Zhang, Brandt, Guichard, Tian, and Fensholt reported a stronger recovery of rainfall totals for the 1983–2015 period in the broadly defined West African Sahel, compared to regions to the East (Chad, Sudan), but lack of ground calibration for the satellite‐based data set in the latter region … They are home to thousands of plants and animal species. In western Africa the period of low sun corresponds to the harmattan season. The hot, dry continental tropical air mass, which is present in the upper levels of the atmosphere, descends to the ground only at the convergence zone. Types of Climates. High-resolution rainfall data are often required as input into continuous simulation hydrological models and other hydrological studies. The humid subtropical marine climate is restricted to the southeast coast of Africa. Fifth, because of the extensive plateau surfaces of the continent and the absence of high and long mountain ranges comparable to, for example, the Andes in South America or the Himalayas in Asia, climatic zones in Africa tend to shade into one another, rather than change abruptly from place to place. However, there are exceptions to this pattern. The temporal characteristics of rainfall variability in Africa are examined using departure series for 84 regions of the continent and five larger-scale zones. At this season the whole of northern Africa (except the Atlas Mountains) is under the dry continental tropical air mass, while Southern Africa receives rainfall except in the Cape region and on the southwest coast, where the maritime air mass remains stable offshore over the cool Benguela Current. In South Africa, south of KwaZulu-Natal, the winter rainfall is more pronounced, and the … World climates are generally divided into five large regions: tropical, dry, mid-latitude, high latitude, and highland.The regions are divided into smaller subregions that are described below. Winter rainfall region, rain throughout the year, summer rainfall region. The rainfall is high and ranges between 1000mm and 1800mm. The West Africa Sahel region is a semi-arid area that runs from the Atlantic Ocean eastward to Chad, separating the Sahara Desert to the north and the Sudanian Savana to the south. Temperatures are about the same as those in the desert regions. Each region and sub-region of Africa is changing differently but an emerging commonality is a shift towards more intense rainfall - even where there is observed and projected future drying. South of the Equator, at yet greater distance from the convergence zone, the maritime air masses are less-heated, thick, and stable, and they bring hardly any rainfall, except over some of the East African highlands. The tropical wet-and-dry region is often called the savanna climatic region; this implies, incorrectly, that all areas with savanna vegetation have this type of climate. South Africa experiences a high degree of sunshine with rainfall about half of the global average, increasing from west to east, and with semi-desert regions in the north-west. Only the southern tip of South Africa receives rainfall at this time, from winter cyclones. Temperature. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Thorn woodland, grassland, and semidesert vegetation. events; increasing aridity; and changes in rainfall—with a particularly pronounced decline in southern Africa and an increase in East Africa. This symmetry is, however, imperfect because of a third factor—the great east–west extent of the continent north of the Equator, in contrast to its narrow width to the south. There are two peak periods of rainfall corresponding to the double passage of the ITCZ. The Mediterranean coast as well as the southern part of Africa get rainfall during the winter months. In this study, we explore the possible mechanism of opposite ENSO effects on summer rainfall in the JJAS region (northern GHA) and autumn rainfall in the OND region (equatorial GHA). We used rainfall and temperature records between 1987 and 2016 from 46 weather stations across South Africa to calculate annual rainfall seasonality characteristics using two methods. (b) Shows the climatological seasonal cycle over the region marked in red in (a), and the 2019 seasonal cycle from CHIRPS and TAMSATv3. The winter months are much rainier than the summer months in Cape Town. Nutrients in the top layers of the soil are washed away after torrential rain, on the other side nothing can grow if it rains too little. Through the Africa Rainfall Project, researchers at Delft University of Technology will create high-resolution computer simulations of localized rainstorms in sub-Saharan Africa. The rainfall can be distributed across most of the year, or in two rainy seasons with short drier periods between the rains. With the exception of these, the continent is affected both by a continental tropical air mass to the north and by maritime tropical and maritime equatorial air masses to the south. Although some high-level similarities are evident, digging into the specifics of certain regions and countries shows that Africa comprises a range of distinct investment destinations, each with its own attractions, flaws, cultural differences and business practices. Other parts of Africa usually have one wet season which gets shorter the farther away you get from the equator. Humidity is always high, making life in this region very unpleasant. At the ITCZ itself, however, precipitation is prolonged and intense as air converges between the maritime and continental air masses and is forced aloft. Rain falls only in winter (December–January in North Africa, June–July in Southern Africa), although in some localities it may fall in autumn (September in North Africa, April in Southern Africa). In recent years with similar climate drivers (1998, 1999, 2005, 2007, 2010, 2016, and 2017), rainfall was below average (Figure 1). We focus on the April rainfall, a month of high seasonal rainfall over west and east tropical Africa (e.g., Washington et al. The Guineo-Congolian Region is the wettest in West Africa, with average annual rainfall between 2,200 and 5,000 mm. The box in (a) shows East Africa region of study, and the averaging region for time series in (c) and (d), where dotted lines show the medians (med), lower quartiles (LQ) and upper quartiles (UQ) calculated using data within the range of years listed in the figure legends. In the savannahs and grasslands longer grass is replaced by shorter grass as you move away from the equator, with trees scattered in-between. Even the driest month of the year receives rainfall more than 6cm. According to Köppen and Geiger, this climate is classified as Csb. When considered in detail, the movement of air masses and their effects provide the basis for a division of the continent into eight climatic regions. 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